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Diferencias de género en la aversión al riesgo: ¿son las mujeres intrínsecamente menos arriesgadas que los hombres? (“Gender differences in risk aversion: are women inherently less venturous than men?”)BELTRÁN BARCO, Arlette Cecilia LourdesSocial Policy, Human Development and SocietyIn Latin America and worldwide, it is observed that there are fewer women holding positions of responsibility in various companies and sectors of economic activity. These gender gaps are important, especially in more developed countries. In addition, when women participate as entrepreneurs, they do so in less favorable conditions, since they are owners or leaders of smaller, less profitable companies, of lower growth, or more informal. One hypothesis states that all this happens because women tend to be more risk-averse than men, while most business positions are characterized by not being risk-neutral. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyze whether, intrinsically, women tend to be more risk-averse than men in most of the decisions they make, whether at home or in the labor market. That would mark an important guideline in all those measures which are deployed globally to strengthen the leadership and empowerment of women in the economy.18Diferencias de género en la aversión al riesgo: ¿son las mujeres intrínsecamente menos arriesgadas que los hombres? (“Gender differences in risk aversion: are women inherently less venturous than men?”)http://www.up.edu.pe/en/Lists/Proyectos/DispForm.aspx?ID=18
La psicofísica, los precios y los mercados: evidencia de una población amazónica (“Psychophysics, prices, and markets: evidence of an Amazonian population”)Bird, MatthewSocial Policy, Human Development and SocietyThere’s the hypothesis that, in a society where human relationships are mediated by market logic or goods, people tend to develop a capitalist mentality. Recently, the perspective of cultural psychology has come to influence some studies of decision making. Thus, we have experimental evidence that people from different socio-cultural contexts present systematic differences in the way how they think (cognition), in what they want (motivation) and how they feel (emotion), which, linked to socio-cultural practices, influence systematically their decisions. However, the original hypothesis still has not been studied or tested. This study aims to test the influence of market logic in economic decisions through an experimental comparison between a group of Ashaninka migrants in Lima and an Ashaninka group in its place of origin (Satipo). Specifically, two kinds of experiments will be performed: a mathematical experiment and an economic experiment.19La psicofísica, los precios y los mercados: evidencia de una población amazónica (“Psychophysics, prices, and markets: evidence of an Amazonian population”)http://www.up.edu.pe/en/Lists/Proyectos/DispForm.aspx?ID=19
Lo abstracto y lo concreto en las evaluaciones de aprendizaje del Perú: comportamiento diferencial de los ítems en la Evaluación Nacional del 2013 (“The abstract and the concrete in Peru’s learning assessments: differential behavior of the items on the 20GUADALUPE MENDIZABAL, César AugustoSocial Policy, Human Development and SocietySince 1996, the Ministry of Education conducts standardized assessments of student learning in basic education. In this context, this project aims to develop an original study on these measurements of student achievement in Peru, addressing an area so far not addressed by the literature on studies in the country. Its relevance is due not only to the evaluation of the validity of the information that the tests generate, but also to the need to promote a more careful use of this information in education policy. One neglected aspect in secondary data analyses (in fact, there is no publication in the country that addresses this topic) is linked to what the literature knows as the differential item functioning. This aspect is linked to the fact that the way in which questions are constructed (either by the stimulus used by itself or by the actual wording of the questions) can be processed by students differently depending on some of their attributes (sex, area of residence, cognitive demand of the local environment, etc.), so that the measure of student ability is weakened by the hidden effect of these other factors in the measurement.26Lo abstracto y lo concreto en las evaluaciones de aprendizaje del Perú: comportamiento diferencial de los ítems en la Evaluación Nacional del 2013 (“The abstract and the concrete in Peru’s learning assessments: differential behavior of the items on the 20http://www.up.edu.pe/en/Lists/Proyectos/DispForm.aspx?ID=26
Análisis del discurso de operadores de justicia sobre el cambio de nombre y sexo en expedientes legales de personas transexuales en Lima (“Discourse analysis of justice officials on the change of name and sex on legal records of transsexuals in Lima”)KOGAN COGAN, LiubaSocial Policy, Human Development and SocietyIn order to identify the different mechanisms and processes by which justice officials approve or deny the request for change of gender on the National Identity Document (Spanish: DNI), this study is important for two reasons: the first is related to the physical and symbolic violence faced by transgender people because they lack legal and social support; and the second has to do with the fact that because they don’t have an ID that matches their physical appearance, they cannot access government services and jobs in the public and private sectors. Part of the difficulty is that justice operators have a positivist and conservative education about sexuality. This will be subject of analysis to remove the scaffolding that holds conservative concepts about sex, gender, and sexual identity, giving them visibility.30Análisis del discurso de operadores de justicia sobre el cambio de nombre y sexo en expedientes legales de personas transexuales en Lima (“Discourse analysis of justice officials on the change of name and sex on legal records of transsexuals in Lima”)http://www.up.edu.pe/en/Lists/Proyectos/DispForm.aspx?ID=30
Efectos de largo plazo de los Caminos del Inca en el desarrollo local (“Long-term effects of the Inca Trail in local development”)LAVADO PADILLA, PabloSocial Policy, Human Development and SocietyIt is known that both historical and legal institutions generated lasting and lingering effects in the current development. In fact, Acemoglu, Johnson & Robinson (2000) emphasize that historical institutions are responsible for 75% of the differences in GDP per capita today. However, quantitatively speaking, the consequences provided specifically by the QhapaqÑan, also known as the Inca Trail, are unknown. The QhapaqÑan allowed greater connectivity throughout the territory of the Inca Empire, which caused both positive and negative effects at the time, and which in the long term affected circumscribed areas. In the specific case of Peru, the QhapaqÑan and the institutions around it may have affected the variables involved in the construction of the trail (economic, social, etc.). The main objective of the research is to estimate the effect of QhapaqÑan in the current development, mainly in variables such as poverty, education, and nutrition.32Efectos de largo plazo de los Caminos del Inca en el desarrollo local (“Long-term effects of the Inca Trail in local development”)http://www.up.edu.pe/en/Lists/Proyectos/DispForm.aspx?ID=32

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