- Social Policy, Human Development and Society
Studying the Peruvian case was fundamental for the theoretical refining on electoral clientelism (Muñoz 2013, 2014) and, therefore, may also be useful for a comparative study of political patronage in Latin America. This new research is part of a comparative project on patronage in the region entitled "The Politics of Patronage in Latin America" and led by professors Francisco Panizza (London School of Economics), Guy Peters (University of Pittsburgh), Conrado Ramos (Universidad de la República del Uruguay) and Gerardo Scherlis (Universidad de Buenos Aires). Conventional studies of electoral clientelism and patronage in Latin America have focused almost exclusively on cases with a strong local party organization. However, in terms of the weakness of the party system, Peru may be more typical in Latin America than any other countries. Therefore, it is crucial to include Peru as an extreme case.